There is a notion of non-commutative Lie algebra called "Leibniz algebra", which is characterized by the condition: left bracketing is a derivation. The purpose of this article is to introduce and study a new notion of algebra, called "associative dialgebra", which is, to the Leibniz algebras, what associative algebras are to Lie algebras. An associative dialgebra is a vector space equipped with two associative operations satisfying three more conditions. For instance, any differential associative algebra gives rise to a dialgebra.
In this article we construct and study a (co)homology theory for associative dialgebras. The surprizing fact, in the construction of the chain complex, is the appearance of the combinatorics of planar binary trees (grafting and nesting). The principal result about this homology theory is its vanishing on free associative dialgebras.
The Koszul dual (in the sense of Ginzburg and Kapranov) of the operad of associative dialgebras is the operad of "dendriform algebras". The dendriform algebras are characterized by two operations satisfying three linear conditions. The sum of these two operations defines a new operation which is associative. The free dendriform algebra can be described in terms of planar binary trees. As a consequence we give an explicitly description of strong homotopy associative dialgebras.
This paper is part of a long-standing project whose ultimate aim is to study periodicity phenomenons in algebraic K-theory, as explained in ``Overview on Leibniz algebras, dialgebras and their homology". Fields Inst. Commun. 17 (1997), 91--102.
In abstract algebra, a dialgebra is the generalization of both algebra and coalgebra. The notion was originally introduced by Lambek as “subequalizers”. Many algebraic notions have previously been generalized to dialgebras. Dialgebra also attempts to obtain Lie algebras from associated algebras.